South Sudan’s Sudd wetlands are crucial for regulating water and climate, and for the habitats and resources they provide, but oil production and hydropolitics are threatening their survival. Eoghan Darbyshire looks at the choices the government needs to make.
South Sudan has been caught in a cycle of civil conflicts since 1955. Now an independent nation, control over natural resources such as oil and timber has been key to its recurrent periods of violence. Once home to some of the richest and most populous wildlife habitats in Africa, insecurity and the availability of arms have driven severe losses in biodiversity, the true extent of which remains unclear. Pollution from its oil industry plagues oil producing areas with lax controls over environmental standards. Read the South Sudan briefing.
Deforestation is a common problem for countries affected by conflict. In 2020, COVID-19 placed further constraints on forest management in these areas. This report reviews the latest satellite data on forest loss in seven countries, analysing the forces driving deforestation.
Climate change can drive variation in the availability of natural resources, so Charlotta Ruuskanen looked at whether annual changes in the area of the Sudd wetland in South Sudan influenced the intensity of conflict between pastoralist communities.
South Sudan is rich in biodiversity but it has suffered as a result of its recurring civil wars. In this blog Adrian Garside examines wildlife conservation efforts that took place before, during and after its latest civil war in an effort to protect its natural heritage.
Adrian Garside examines the complex issue of arms proliferation in South Sudan, and the threat it poses to biodiversity protection during and after armed conflict. The ready availability of weapons accelerates biodiversity loss and makes wildlife conservation more dangerous.
#SouthSudan has moved to protect an oilfield close to its border with Sudan for fear of it being attacked by the RSF. The Heglig field was the scene of heavy fighting in 2012 during the border war with Sudan.
Open access next month, this paper explores the idea of protecting ecologically important areas during conflicts, with ideas based on insights from #SouthSudan, #Ukraine & #DRC. Collab with @1earth4peace @AndyPlumptre & Adrian Garside https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-review-of-the-red-cross/article/protected-zones-in-context-exploring-the-complexity-of-armed-conflicts-and-their-impacts-on-the-protection-of-biodiversity/741575E8522637A99EFAF5D6D9C784DE #PERAC #biodiversity
This report looks at the question of electricity access in relationship to South Sudan’s conflict and the unique options to help harness renewable energy as a tool for peace and development across the country.
Colombia SIPA | Energy and Water for Sovereignty: South Sudan’s Regional Diplomacy and the Geopolitics of the Nile Basin
Grievances over how to manage water, land, and oil played an indispensable role in three long civil wars that have left the citizens of South Sudan highly vulnerable to economic and environmental shocks.
A 240-mile canal to divert water from the White Nile and send it to Egypt would desiccate the world’s second largest wetland, impacting its rich wildlife and the rains on which the region depends.
Sudd Institute | The Tragedy of the Unregulated: Why the government should reform the charcoal sector
A brief arguing that the lack of effective regulation throughout the charcoal value chain in South Sudan is leading to tragic consequences.
South Sudan is highly vulnerable to climate change, including flooding, droughts and, most recently, a locust infestation. Long-term climate change, like a gradual increase in temperature, and short-term changes, like increased flooding, have indirect and interlinked implications for peace and security in South Sudan.
An open source investigation into South Sudan’s oil industry and the pollution it causes through inadequate management and regulation.
The Government of the Republic of South Sudan’s principle instrument for the undertaking of biodiversity management and conservation in the country. It presents a form of baseline, a reference for the status of biodiversity and conservation, as well as a vision for the future.
This first ever State of the Environment and Outlook report for South Sudan is intended to form the basis and the benchmark for assessments, inventories, mapping and valuation of its vast natural resources; for future planning and the management of natural resources and environmental protection.
A paper examining the relationship between climate change and conflict in South Sudan. Some of the important factors the paper highlights include the competition for territory usually based on the land’s fertility.
Wild et al | The militarization of cattle raiding in South Sudan: how a traditional practice became a tool for political violence
An analysis of the politicisation of the pastoral practice of cattle raiding in South Sudan, and its enduring consequences on peace and stability.
An examination of the mobilisation and transformation of South Sudan’s many informal armies, with a focus on three case studies. The utility of this paper is its provision of essential context relevant for community-based solutions to environmental peacebuilding and natural resource management.
An explanation of how South Sudan’s system of government led to its civil war.
An analysis of the internal struggle to build the state of the new South Sudan and the international community’s assistance, which became a violent civil war of state formation.