Comments submitted to the government of Ireland’s March 2021 negotiations on a political declaration on the use of explosive weapons in populated areas, which identifies opportunities for addressing their environmental impact.
Since 2009, there has been renewed international interest in efforts to enhance the weak legal framework intended to protect the environment in relation to armed conflicts (PERAC). The topic is currently under consideration by the UN’s International Law Commission, it is being addressed by the International Committee of the Red Cross, and has also been the feature of resolutions at the UN Environment Assembly. Meanwhile, wider questions around environmental security are increasingly on the agenda of the UN Security Council.
A joint position paper arguing that states should use the Fifth United Nations Environment Assembly to help promote the use of nature-based solutions before, during and after armed conflicts.
Report examining what steps states and private companies should take to reduce corporate environmental harm in areas affected by armed conflicts, exploring the OECD Guidelines on Multinational Enterprises, UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and the ILC’s PERAC principles.
Report seeking to understand why Russia opposes measures to more effectively integrate the environment into international policymaking on peace and security. To do so it explores how and why the concept of environmental security features in Russian domestic, security and foreign policies.
This report reviews Canada’s state practice on the protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts, or PERAC. It uses draft legal principles developed by the UN’s International Law Commission as benchmarks against which to measure Canadian conduct before, during and after armed conflicts, and in occupation.
Statement on behalf of CEOBS, PAX and Zoï Environment Network arguing that states at the 2020 UNGA First Committee need to do more to articulate the environmental dimensions of the weapons and security issues on its agenda.
Harvard/CEOBS | Confronting conflict pollution – principles for assisting victims of toxic remnants of war
Harvard Law School’s International Human Rights Clinic and CEOBS have adapted humanitarian disarmament’s norms of victim assistance to the context of toxic remnants of war, with 14 principles designed to establish a framework for assistance.
Joint position from CEOBS, the Environmental Law Institute, Norwegian People’s Aid, PAX, Zoï Environment Network and the Zoological Society of London that urges states to use UNEA-5 to help catalyse global efforts to address the link between armed conflicts and biodiversity loss.
Report: 2019’s UN General Assembly debate on the protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts
Our round up and analysis of 2019’s UN General Assembly debate on proposals by the International law Commission to strengthen the laws protecting the environment in relation to armed conflicts.
A brief overview of international legal and policy initiatives relating to conflict and the environment, with timeline and further suggested reading.
Briefing paper: Strengthening the International Law Commission’s newly adopted draft principles on the protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts
Briefing paper for states ahead of October 2019’s debate in the UN General Assembly’s Sixth Committee. The paper identifies opportunities to strengthen the most recent draft principles proposed by the ILC on the protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts.
Report: The United Kingdom’s practice on the protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts
In this report we analyse the UK’s practice on the protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts, using the draft principles on the topic that have been developed by the UN’s International Law Commission.
Wild and domesticated animals have long-suffered abuse, injury or death in armed conflicts. In this blog, Janice Cox and Jackson Zee explore this history of harm and the reasons behind it, arguing that the animal victims of war require greater recognition and protection.
We explore a new CEOBS report that examines how states and the private sector could use international guidelines to reduce the environmental harm associated with corporate activities in fragile and conflict affected areas.
Why does Russia object to international processes aimed at integrating the environment into international policymaking on peace and security? Nina Lesikhina and Doug Weir summarise the findings of CEOBS’ major new report exploring how and why the concept of environmental security features in Russian domestic, security and foreign policies.
We reviewed Canada’s policies and practice on the protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts. We found some positives but issues like corporate conduct, Indigenous rights, nuclear weapons and occupation law need attention.
This #EnvConflictDay we argue that a new Environment, Peace and Security agenda is needed to ensure attention for the environment in the global peace and security discourse, to encourage transformative policymaking and to bring meaningful change to people and ecosystems in the world’s most fragile states.
Is environmental damage inevitable in war, or is it possible for it be afforded more protection? Might there be psychological barriers that have prevented governments developing more effective protection? Gabriela Kolpak and Klaudija Visockyte investigate.
Armed conflicts can have a devastating impact on habitats and wildlife, and historically biodiversity hotspots have been disproportionately affected by warfare. Stavros Pantazopoulos examines whether it is possible to designate such areas as off limits, using protected zones enshrined in law?
From nuclear weapons testing to oil well fires and sick veterans, new legal principles use the frameworks developed for assisting those harmed by land mines and cluster munitions to inform how we help the victims of conflict and military pollution.
Ever wondered what the environmental impacts of war are? Read our guide to the many different ways through which armed conflicts and militarism can damage the environment.
Geodiversity provides the habitat upon which biodiversity is dependant, and it often also underpins the livelihoods of those living in conflict zones. In this blog, Dr Kevin Kiernan argues that we need to do more to protect it before, during and after conflicts.
The COVID-19 pandemic is highlighting the vulnerability of people in conflict-affected areas without access to water. In this blog, Dr Mara Tignino and Tadesse Kebebew argue that strengthening the norms protecting water infrastructure is more vital than ever.
Could geoengineering technologies that can modify our climate pose a threat to peace and security? And could they join other environmentally risky civilian infrastructure in becoming a target or hostage during conflicts? Gabriela Kolpak investigates.
Great to contribute to this piece by @_Vaishnavi_R for @_thebastion_ on #conservation projects across contested and militarised borders, and on conservation as a tool for #EnvironmentalPeacebuilding @IUCN @EnvPeacebuild #PERAC
Environment, the Unsuspecting Victim of Cross-Border Conflicts | THE BASTION
Trans-national conservation can protect flora and fauna in the strategically sensitive landscapes India shares with Pakistan and China.
The process by which states will submit comments on the #IntLaw Commission's draft principles on the Protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts is an opportunity for the US (and UK) to renounce reprisals against the environment #PERAC https://www.justsecurity.org/75553/renouncing-reprisals-an-opportunity-for-the-biden-administration
We often get asked about whether the @CIJ_ICJ could contribute to holding parties accountable for wartime environmental damage. This blog has a nice summary of its relevant case law to date. #PERAC #intlaw
#JusCogens #Environment Law Month starts here! Our first piece is by @MoisesMontielM who discusses the jurisprudence of the ICJ in establishing a standalone obligation to protect the environment during armed conflict. Read the article here: https://juscogens.law.blog/2021/03/30/if-war-were-to-doom-us-all-tomorrow-the-icj-would-still-plant-a-tree/
2020 update to the International Committee of the Red Cross’s 1994 guidelines on international humanitarian law’s provisions for environmental protection during armed conflicts.
Webinar to launch a new report from the Harvard Law School International Human Rights Clinic and CEOBS on a newly developed framework to assist victims of toxic remnants of war. September 30th 16:00-17:30 CEST, 10:00-11:30 EST – registration is now open.
Focusing on Syria and Ukraine, AOAV review four key areas of environmental concern to gain some understanding of the environmental consequences from the use of explosive weapons. These areas are unexploded ordnance, agriculture, infrastructural damage, and flora and fauna.
This report provides insights into the positions likely to be taken by the ICRC in its revised environmental guidelines for military manuals, which are expected to be published in 2020.
This report contains all 28 draft principles adopted by the ILC at First Reading in July 2019, together with their commentaries.
Gleick | Water as a weapon and casualty of armed conflict: A review of recent water-related violence in Iraq, Syria, and Yemen
Recent and ongoing conflicts in the MENA have seen the increasing use of water as a weapon and as a target, this paper by the Pacific Institute analyses this trend and considers ways to address it through enhancing protection during conflicts.
ILC | Text and titles of the draft principles provisionally adopted by the Drafting Committee on first reading
First look at the entire suite of draft legal principles that have been under development by the International Law Commission since 2013 and which are intended to enhance protection for the environment in relation to armed conflicts.
In late 2019, the ICRC will launch updated guidelines for militaries on environmental protection during armed conflicts, this blog and animation consider why they are needed.
ILC | Second report on the protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts by Marja Lehto, Special Rapporteur
The 5th report from the International Law Commission on the protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts proposes seven new draft principles and addresses a range of issues, include the responsibility of state and non state actors.
The first-ever global assessment of environmental rule of law finds weak enforcement to be a global trend that is exacerbating environmental threats, despite prolific growth in environmental laws and agencies worldwide over the last four decades.
A round up of the 7th November 2018 Arria Formula debate in the UN Security Council on the protection of the environment during armed conflict – the first time the topic has been discussed in the Council.
ILC | First report on protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts by Marja Lehto, Special Rapporteur
While previous reports by the ILC adopted a temporal approach, broadly addressing environmental protection before, during and after conflicts, the new report delves into the obligations on states to protect the environment during situations of occupation and proposes three new draft principles.
UNEA-3 | Resolution: Pollution mitigation and control in areas affected by armed conflict or terrorism
This resolution was triggered by the widespread pollution caused by Islamic State in Iraq, it sought to draw attention to wide range of factors that cause pollution in conflict and strengthen the response by states and UN Environment to the health and environmental risks posed by the toxic remnants of war.
Stahn et al | Environmental Protection and Transitions from Conflict to Peace: Clarifying Norms, Principles, and Practices
This open access book covers a range of environmental issues common to post-conflict settings and explores legal and policy principles relevant to enhancing environmental protection.
Report and recommendations from the High-Level Panel on Water and Peace on the ways to address water security throughout the cycle of conflicts.
With 2017’s UN Environment Assembly focusing on the theme of pollution, UN Environment’s Civil Society Unit invited the TRW Project to contribute an extended article on conflict pollution to its long-running Perspectives series.
Blog examining post-2011 efforts to strengthen the legal framework protecting the environment in relation to armed conflicts.
This UN Environment Assembly resolution helped reaffirm UN Environment’s mandate to work on conflicts and was a sign of the growing international interest in addressing the environmental dimensions of armed conflicts.
The third report of the ILC’s Special Rapporteur proposed a number of principles related to post-conflict environmental measures, by necessity these placed a greater reliance on the practice of states and international organisations than those proposed during conflicts.
A major multi-year project to document environmental policy and practice from conflict zones around the world in order to create a foundation for the field of environmental peacebuilding.
ILPI | Report: Expert Meeting on the Protection of the Environment in times of Armed Conflict, Helsinki 2015
This workshop reviewed the findings of the empirical study by ILPI into the environmental dimensions of international and non-international armed conflicts.
Based on 30 years of ICRC work in urban conflict zones, this report warns that unless humanitarian agencies adopt a different approach to assisting urban populations in conflict, the human and social cost could be catastrophic, with the deterioration of critical infrastructure leaving people without essential services.
The second report from the ILC’s Special Rapporteur proposed four draft principles aimed at minimising harm during conflict, and one on the agreement of protected areas before conflicts, or at their outset.
A report from Oslo’s International Law and Policy Institute commissioned by the Norwegian government as part of the ICRC Pledge 1290 from the 2011 Red Cross conference to: “highlight the relevance of the existing legal framework for the protection of the natural environment in contemporary armed conflicts”.
Report covers the initial phase of the work of the International Law Commission on the Protection of the environment in relation to armed conflicts, between 2011-2014.
Workshop report from one of a series of conferences held to review the state of legal protection for the environment following the 2011 ICRC conference.
2011 report submitted to the 31st International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent strengthening legal protection for victims of armed conflict. The report includes suggestions for new approaches to reducing civilian harm from conflict pollution and environmental damage.
UNEP | Protecting the environment during armed conflict: an inventory and analysis of international law
In 2009 UNEP, the ICRC and the Environmental Law Institute sought to catalogue and analyse the legal framework protecting the environment in relation to armed conflict.