The United Nations’ Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) obliges some states to report on their greenhouse gas emissions every year. But, because reporting military emissions is voluntary, many governments have chosen not to. We call this lack of transparency the ‘military emissions gap’.

We know that militaries are significant emitters of greenhouse gas emissions, whether in peacetime or during operations. We also know that improving transparency over their emissions reporting is a key first step towards making the urgent cuts that are needed.

Working with researchers from Lancaster and Durham universities ‘Concrete Impacts’ project, we have created – a website dedicated to making the data that states report to the UNFCCC more transparent and accessible. The site was launched during COP26.

The website is part of a package of activities that CEOBS is working on around how militarism, conflicts and peace influence greenhouse gas emissions. With growing military engagement on the issue, it is vital that we scrutinise the pledges and claims being made, as well as articulate our expectations for how militaries should address their outsize impact on the environment.

For more information please contact Doug Weir (doug at or Linsey Cottrell (linsey at


Two Abrams tanks on a firing range fire producing large bursts of flame during a NATO exercise in 2024.

National climate action plans must include military emissions

COP28 agreed that countries must submit new NDCs by February 2025. These national plans for climate action are important but at present military emissions are largely absent from them. As Linsey Cottrell finds, failing to include them this year could delay their inclusion until 2030.

Campaigners protect about militarism and the climate crisis at COP28.

“Always money for war”, reflecting on COP28

Ellie Kinney reflects on the role that militaries played in COP28, whether behind closed doors, centre stage, or by their absence, and on the prospects for international action on military and conflict emissions at COP29.

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